The following excerpt is taken from the upcoming policy report The Libyan Political Process: The Need for A New International Approach, to be published in early 2019 by the Brussels International Center.
In late December 2019, the Tripoli based-UN backed- Government of National Accord (GNA) appealed for Turkey to intervene in Libya. As a response, the Turkish Parliament held an emergency session on January 3rd, 2020, and voted to authorize President Recep Tayep Erdogan to deploy Turkish troops to Libya. Soon after, the deployment of troops materialized. However, not only were Turkish military forces deployed but Syrian rebels from northern Syria too.
Currently, the Iraqi security sector has relied on international assistance over the past years to combat terrorism within the country through capacity building, military trainings and financial assistance. With current tensions in the region, Iraq has called for a withdrawal of all foreign military troops, which could have widespread consequences that impact the future stability of the country.
As Libya’s war enters 2020, dynamics within the war-ravaged country took a dramatic turn when the Turkish parliament, a regional ally of the GNA in Tripoli, approved on 3 January 2020 the deployment of Turkish ground-forces in support of the GNA’s position. Since then Turkey has sent military advisors, and Syrian rebel forces allied with Turkey, in support of Fayez al-Serraj’s administration.
Coercive Engineered Migration corresponds to an attempt from a challenger to obtain political, economic or military concessions from a target through the instrumentalization of a migration “crisis”. It generally appears as an asymmetric weapon by a weak actor against a stronger one and may, in some cases, be considered as a punishment strategy. Usually the favorite target in this exercise of coercive diplomacy is defined by a democratic mode of governance.
Tensions are escalating in the Middle East, as Iran and the United States have reached the most critical point in their relationship since the hostage crisis in 1979. As promised, Tehran did not let the assassination of General Soleimani go unpunished. After three days of mourning, which were punctuated by numerous threats of retaliation, Iran has finally decided to take its revenge.
BIC President, Ambassador Marc Otte, welcomes new EU leaders with words of advice on three key issues that will shape an audacious agenda for a stronger and smarter Global Europe, and ensure that the EU demonstrates true leadership in an unpredictable geopolitical arena with emerging actors and new challenges.
Dear EU Leaders,
Turkey announced its plan to engineer a ‘safe zone’ in northern Syria, an initiative that, according to Turkey, mainly emanates from the country’s discontent from the presence of armed Syrian Democratic Forces’ (SDF) on its southern borders. At their essence, safe zones are employed by states to pursue politically motivated objectives. In the case of northern Syria, Turkey’s ambitions go beyond pushing the Kurds away from its border.
Ongoing protests in Iraq have once again fueled discussion of sectarian rhetoric that has been used to describe the evolving situation in Iraq for decades. In a post-Hussein, post-2003 United States invasion Iraq, sectarianism has been coined as a term to describe widespread historical issues throughout the country. After the US invasion of 2003, the fragile government of Iraq fell victim to deep divisions that allowed Iran to advance their influence in Iraq, in a time of weakness.
As Sudan continues its path toward transition, the question of a successful transitional justice process is now being explored. While there are different conceptions of transitional justice, and different notions for implementation, what is best for Sudan will need to be particularly sensitive to context and be supported with the help of the international community. That way there can be a process that both recognizes victims, and ensures that the political transition to democracy continues to strengthen.